Read at leakedpress / Spiegel, posting from Leakedpress . If this is true (which it probably is. otherwise Snowden would not be hiding), then its something to either fear or marvel at. In both cases, I would love to see these devices in action as its something which catches my expertise and eye.
After years of speculation that electronics can be accessed by intelligence agencies through a back door, an internal NSA catalog reveals that such methods already exist for numerous end-user devices.
When it comes to modern firewalls for corporate computer networks, the world’s second largest network equipment manufacturer doesn’t skimp on praising its own work. According to Juniper Networks’ online PR copy, the company’s products are “ideal” for protecting large companies and computing centers from unwanted access from outside. They claim the performance of the company’s special computers is “unmatched” and their firewalls are the “best-in-class.” Despite these assurances, though, there is one attacker none of these products can fend off — the United States’ National Security Agency.
Specialists at the intelligence organization succeeded years ago in penetrating the company’s digital firewalls. A document viewed by SPIEGEL resembling a product catalog reveals that an NSA division called ANT has burrowed its way into nearly all the security architecture made by the major players in the industry — including American global market leader Cisco and its Chinese competitor Huawei, but also producers of mass-market goods, such as US computer-maker Dell and Apple’s iPhone.
These NSA agents, who specialize in secret back doors, are able to keep an eye on all levels of our digital lives — from computing centers to individual computers, from laptops to mobile phones. For nearly every lock, ANT seems to have a key in its toolbox. And no matter what walls companies erect, the NSA’s specialists seem already to have gotten past them.
This, at least, is the impression gained from flipping through the 50-page document. The list reads like a mail-order catalog, one from which other NSA employees can order technologies from the ANT division for tapping their targets’ data. The catalog even lists the prices for these electronic break-in tools, with costs ranging from free to $250,000.
In the case of Juniper, the name of this particular digital lock pick is “FEEDTROUGH.” This malware burrows into Juniper firewalls and makes it possible to smuggle other NSA programs into mainframe computers. Thanks to FEEDTROUGH, these implants can, by design, even survive “across reboots and software upgrades.” In this way, US government spies can secure themselves a permanent presence in computer networks. The catalog states that FEEDTROUGH “has been deployed on many target platforms.”
The specialists at ANT, which presumably stands for Advanced or Access Network Technology, could be described as master carpenters for the NSA’s department for Tailored Access Operations (TAO). In cases where TAO’s usual hacking and data-skimming methods don’t suffice, ANT workers step in with their special tools, penetrating networking equipment, monitoring mobile phones and computers and diverting or even modifying data. Such “implants,” as they are referred to in NSA parlance, have played a considerable role in the intelligence agency’s ability to establish a global covert network that operates alongside the Internet.
Some of the equipment available is quite inexpensive. A rigged monitor cable that allows “TAO personnel to see what is displayed on the targeted monitor,” for example, is available for just $30. But an “active GSM base station” — a tool that makes it possible to mimic a mobile phone tower and thus monitor cell phones — costs a full $40,000. Computer bugging devices disguised as normal USB plugs, capable of sending and receiving data via radio undetected, are available in packs of 50 for over $1 million.
The ANT division doesn’t just manufacture surveillance hardware. It also develops software for special tasks. The ANT developers have a clear preference for planting their malicious code in so-called BIOS, software located on a computer’s motherboard that is the first thing to load when a computer is turned on.
This has a number of valuable advantages: an infected PC or server appears to be functioning normally, so the infection remains invisible to virus protection and other security programs. And even if the hard drive of an infected computer has been completely erased and a new operating system is installed, the ANT malware can continue to function and ensures that new spyware can once again be loaded onto what is presumed to be a clean computer. The ANT developers call this “Persistence” and believe this approach has provided them with the possibility of permanent access.
Another program attacks the firmware in hard drives manufactured by Western Digital, Seagate, Maxtor and Samsung, all of which, with the exception of latter, are American companies. Here, too, it appears the US intelligence agency is compromising the technology and products of American companies.
Other ANT programs target Internet routers meant for professional use or hardware firewalls intended to protect company networks from online attacks. Many digital attack weapons are “remotely installable” — in other words, over the Internet. Others require a direct attack on an end-user device — an “interdiction,” as it is known in NSA jargon — in order to install malware or bugging equipment.
There is no information in the documents seen by SPIEGEL to suggest that the companies whose products are mentioned in the catalog provided any support to the NSA or even had any knowledge of the intelligence solutions. “Cisco does not work with any government to modify our equipment, nor to implement any so-called security ‘back doors’ in our products,” the company said in a statement. Contacted by SPIEGEL reporters, officials at Western Digital, Juniper Networks and Huawei also said they had no knowledge of any such modifications. Meanwhile, Dell officials said the company “respects and complies with the laws of all countries in which it operates.”
Many of the items in the software solutions catalog date from 2008, and some of the target server systems that are listed are no longer on the market today. At the same time, it’s not as if the hackers within the ANT division have been sleeping on the job. They have continued to develop their arsenal. Some pages in the 2008 catalog, for example, list new systems for which no tools yet exist. However, the authors promise they are already hard at work developing new tools and that they will be “pursued for a future release”.
You can read the full post here - http://www.theprohack.com/2014/02/nsa-hacks-every-network-device.html
Its feels like aeons since I have written anything at Prohack. Actually, I got busy with my side projects, job & some pretty shitty sticky situations (I am looking at your CitiBank) .
Life was crawling ahead & first time in my life I truly felt helpless against the greater powers acting, but that’s an another story for some other time. Life at Orange has been good, has technology , scenarios & responsibilities that actually empower you. So far so good, lets see how it goes ahead.
Nevertheless, its not my life I have come to discuss today here, its something about a webcomic I read too much. I have always been a fan of webcomics, be it the all time classic "User Friendly" or the new ones (well they are fairly old by internet standards but still..) xkcd,The Oatmeal , Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal , Penny Arcade , Cyanide & Happiness , Awkward Zombie , Brawl in the Family ,Hijinks Ensue , Dualing Analogs , Dinosaur Comics , JL8 & some pretty cool others (read:too tired to type); they have been a part & parcel of my life since the time I became a netizen.
Be it sublime humour, philosophy , video games or just anything, I believe web comics as a medium ace anything contemporary. Then in & around ~2008 I came across Subnormality, A comic within the umbrella of Viruscomix which are described as "Comix with too many words since 2007" by author Winston Rowntree, & I was blown away by its content. I was instantly hooked & 5 years later, I am a fan.
It has been satirical, practical , intricately detailed , heart-warming , absurd, carefully drawn, full of easter eggs & pop culture references & caters to a very specific audience who have the patience to handle ~1500 - 2000 word texts inside speech bubbles just for the sake of reading a webcomic. But once you see through the veil, trust me, its one hell of a gem that demands a reading.
Just in case its not your cup of tea, you can go through Abnormality which I believe is a fork of Subnormality created to cater Cracked.com & is equally good.
Also, Winston's other comix at Viruscomix are “Sector 41” (a nod to Akademgorodok/Zheleznogorsk), "Things they Dont tell you (but should)" which are a must read.
Just in case you want to test the waters before getting addicted to awesome webcomics by Winston Rowntree, you can read
- Monstrous Discrepancies
- Understanding Nuclear Weapons
- Seven Reasons
- The Closer you get
- Video Game Design
- Logo Design primer
- The Stupid Planet
for a start. Meanwhile, I am reading Zanadu again.. :)
I have had enough..I am very very pissed off as India has become the land of the skids & the greatest contribution to the same has been provided by imitators of Fadia business model ..And for the time being they are having good business by making fool of naive minds. Nowadays everyone I see (and meet) is a freelance security consultant, without even knowing the basics and intricacies of Security as process,acumen,method & lastly knowledge.
When I ask them, "Oh great, nice to meet you, so what you have been working on lately?"
The answer is cryptic bullshit about using Trojans, hacking Facebook profiles (using *means*..duh) , pentesting websites (using haviz/acunetix or automated tools without doing any static code analysis, or XSS'ing the website without even the hint of persistent ones) ,servers and even SEO (!).
A more advanced skid one will babble about using Backtrack/KALI and impress by using metasploit to show how exploits are run to compromise systems (insecure one, also in place of writing their own they just update it) , bit of showing connections to underground scene (wait what ?!) & having everyone by a cryptic handle in their Facebook profiles.
"Nice..So..what is *new* that you are working on lately?" I exclaim.
The media ?
Well..it goes apeshit whenever they hear about hacking prodigies. Well to uneducated media journalists, let it be known to you, RESEARCH BEFORE YOU VOMIT ANYTHING. Why don't you go through Charles Assisi's Article on Ankit Fadia and LEARN SOMETHING ?!!
Worst part - These guys are even authoring books on hacking. Go figure :/
Every time some hacking prodigy or best hacker releases a book on "guide to hacking" with age old obsolete (& mostly stolen) content, a cute bunny performs harakiri with his copy of Sn0wcrash somewhere .
Point in question is that NONE OF THE GUYS WHO PROCLAIM to be the BEST HACKERS IN INDIA have never appeared in reputable security conferences to show their mettle. Instead, they have created their own versions of DEFCON & HACKING CONFERENCES so that they can sing songs about their privates in full glory.
PS: Every time I read Norman Shark's report on an Indian APT, I have a facepalm, just saying. How on earth it was classified as an APT is beyond me.But again, not diverting too far from my point, back to Hackers.
I owe to a lot of people ; yes, every pro was a skid, I admit it, however what separates a skid or a Charlatan from a true 1337/seasoned security researcher is their attitude towards learning, reproducing, validating and then putting their own blood,sweat & tears into research to advance it.
I have met a quite a lot of talented folks in corporate world and have got the privilege to work with some extremely talented people in network security (I am looking at you fambon/jach/m0d412 =] ). Having watched the scene carefully, I wanted to make note of some of most talented folks in Indian security scene today, people who are Hackers (whether they acknowledge it or not) and are not *self proclaimed Hackers/best Hackers/leets* (guys you will find dime a dozen). Seriously guys..where is Halvar Flake of India?
I wanted to do it as they have made significant contribution to the Indian hacking scene , be it awareness,exploits,pwnage or anything, they have been doing what is needed today , rather than to create an army of skids that gave everyone a bad name.
Of course you will argue that the real guys are always hiding in the shadows (read:null) & there are a lot who are working behind the scenes,but still these are the ones you would like to know about (in no particular order).
1. Sanjay Rawat
Veteran security researcher specializing into Code optimization, Machine learning,VA,fuzzing and Network security. One of my heroes I look & greatly idolize.
2. Rahul "fb1h2s" Sasi
I have known Sasi since quite some time, & he is the current torch bearer of the face of Indian hackers, his research into HID devices-Biometrics,Datacards,IVR has recieved widespread attention and has given Indian security scene a good name.
PS: Rahul, if you are reading this , I chose this pic as this makes you resemble more like a cross between Alan Cox & Cory Doctorow, some offbeat folks I greatly admire, no kidding : P
3. Vinay "Vinnu" Katoch
Long time L0Xian has impeccable skills in exploit development, reverse engineering ,malware analysis and development. Known for his exploits in JVM,ASLR/DEP bypass and his quite nature.
4. Vivek Ramachandran
Well, how he can be even missing from this list. His famed Café Latte Attack & his latest primer on making security accessible to everyone via Securitytube has helped millions to learn security the right way, at least the nascent steps. Kudos to him.
5. Rajshekhar Murthy / Atul Alex Cherian
The Malc0n duo is quite infamous for bringing raw,uncensored malware research,development into the spotlight. Malc0n exclusively focuses on proactive malware research and analysis & the responsible folks have been instrumental in making it an international platform.
Honourable mention : Folks at n|u,g4h,SX, I always take you for granted since you have always been 1337s, you don't need a lesser mortal to define your contribution to the scene.
I hope my rant was quite clear (!) , concise and to the point, I hope the next time you will hear about some Indian hacking prodigy in your local newspaper, Facebook page or on a poster at your college campus, you will QUESTION YOURSELF TWICE & ask the goodol' folks at n|u/SX/g4h for a piece of their mind.
If you want to go through the last time I ranted about the BEST HACKERS IN INDIA, click here. You can also read more about Charlatans at Attrition.org, my favourite place to kill off time.
Just in case you might question my authority of ranting about the topic, then well, I hope you will get it someday.
by Rishabh Dangwal · 3
For starters, I never received any email of purchase confirmation, I thought it might have landed in junk/spam folder but hell no. I double checked my email filters, searched every label but nopes..zilch..nada..I simply didn't get any email receipt of purchase from Snapdeal. It was the first omen of a Bad Deal (aka Snapdeal) . Thankfully I didn't closed my browser windows, I was lucky to take the snapshot of transaction , noted down the transaction id from my bank statement , drank a glass of water & wiped away the sweat that scorching Delhi summer delightfully gave me.
5 minutes later I received an SMS from Snapdeal regarding my order number, I matched it with my snapshot, went online again and found after providing my details, the estimated shipping date was 20th May 2013.
I tried to login into Snapdeal and found that since I created an account long time ago (when Snapdeal was not into store business and was into deals business) , I didn't actually remembered its password. I tried to reset it, but received *NO EMAIL* from Snapdeal. Now that was alarming, I was not able to reset my password, not able to get an email receipt and I was not very sure about the delivering capability of Snapdeal (quick search on mouthshut.com was quite revealing).
Immediately I called customer care (+91-92126-92126) , after hearing to whistles and caller tune for 5 minutes (yes, *5 minutes*) , my call was picked. I explained to CCE -
- I am not getting email from Snapdeal.
- I did not received an receipt.
- I am unable to reset my password.
- What is the status of my order as of now and by what time will it get delivered.
- He can not reset password nor help me in any regards in account or email issue.
- My order was under processing and he can not provide an estimated delivery date.
Also, I logged into Snapdeal via FB authentication and was still not able to reset the password.
That was on 15th May 2013.
Now ,to be frank I have never ordered anything from Snapdeal before, one of my friends (Gurpreet Singh) had once ordered some stuff from it , but he warned me about Snapdeal's performance issues after I placed the order.
While I was gleefully cursing him "Saaley pehle kyu nahi bataya !!" , he reassured me that they are slow but they atleast deliver the goods.
"Also, shipping date is 20th,you might be getting goods before that in your hands", he finished gulping his last glass of lassi.
Nervously I reassured myself and crossed my fingers. Who knows, It wasn't for me, it was for my Mom and I wanted to get it delivered on a timely manner.
17th May came and status was still "processing" on the website. Furthermore I tried calling to customer care thrice with no one responding on the number. They also hanged up on me on one occasion without CCE interaction.
Now I was getting a bit angry. 18th May, it was Saturday noon and order was still under processing. I tweeted to Snapdeal
No response from Snapdeal as of now. Also, I sent the email to Snapdeal helpdesk (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Team,You guessed it right, no response from Snapdeal.
I bought Nikon Coolpix L27 16MP Point & Shoot Digital Camera (Purple) Order Number 994202497 Item code 1333471211, its been 3 days but I have NOT received the email reciept of order. Further more I am not able to verify my snapdeal account as I am not getting any emails from Snapdeal regarding verification and order.
I have looked into SPAM/JUNK folder to no avail. I mentioned the same to customer care on 9212692126 but they were helpless.
Furthermore, Why is it so much delay in processing the order ? 3 days and its still processing. Whats the bottleneck in it ? I never had such slow response from any of online retailers I have used ?
Please get back to me on the double.
On 20th May I shot another one.
Still awaiting your response. Its quite incredulous that I am following up for an email response which should have been your duty . Its 20th may and the product page still shows shipping date of 20th May with no update. I had a word with CCE Maninder Sandhu (yeah I got lucky, finally your customer care picked the call) for an update on the order but then he himself was helpless regarding the same.
Its pathetic how you are keeping the money interest free without giving any proactive updates on the status of order and keeping customer completely blind on it.
Nevertheless, I will be waiting till 21 May on an update for a fair chance. After that , I will be cancelling the order and will be filing for a refund.
Seriously, I could have posted call records but then I think it would have been a bit overkill. But then, if they could record our calls for "quality & training purposes" then why cant we use them for some real "quality" purposes ?
I had no idea what was going on, at least an email response would have sufficed. We live in a country where consumer is hailed as king, I have no complains with late deliveries, I am actually angry with no/diminutive response from Snapdeal team. I have paid for an item first rate , online , in single transaction with no dues pending , no instalments and they are keeping my money interest free , processing it according to their whims and are providing no reasons for delay. Furthermore, response time is pathetic, I got the reply from Snapdeal on Facebook page / Twitter , 2 days later, & that too that they are looking into it and order will be shipped today.
Later, I got an SMS from Snapdeal that order has been delayed.
But the online portal is still showing that order is under processing and I really dont know what information to trust.
I was also not able to cancel my order as I CANT REACH TO CUSTOMER CARE AND I AM NOT SURE IF MY EMAILS ARE EVEN READ. As per Snapdeal's guidelines, they can choose to accept or deny my request of cancelling the order based on their convenience and understanding of situation.
If you cant read it, to quote Snapdeal (Trust me, its an amusing read)
10.2 Cancellation by the User: In case of requests for order cancellations, Snapdeal reserves the right to accept or reject requests for order cancellations for any reason whatsoever. As part of usual business practice, if Snapdeal receives a cancellation notice and the order has not been processed/ approved by Snapdeal, Snapdeal shall cancel the order and refund the entire amount to You within a reasonable period of time. Snapdeal will not be able to cancel orders that have already been processed. Snapdeal has the full right to decide whether an order has been processed or not. You agree not to dispute the decision made by Snapdeal and accept Snapdeal's decision regarding the cancellation.Very cute .
Bet I would have called Snapdeal for cancellation and they would have cancelled my request because they “had processed my order” .. and because its written in clause 10.2 .
As of now, summing up my entire experience on Snapdeal echoes the following problems again and again -
- Lack of proper communication to customer.
- Unresponsive support &
- Broken implementation of information systems.
As of now, I haven't got any response on my tweet to Snapdeal
Another call to CCE Maninder Sandhu (I just got lucky) was fruitless although he was a nice chap and was trying to help.
Lessons learnt :
- I wont be shopping from Snapdeal again, thats for sure, unless they make some really radical changes in their system.
- Wont be ordering from my hard earned money from portals that are pathetic.
Meanwhile, I am still waiting for my camera to be delivered .. : (
(6 Days at the time of writing ) and counting..
Update 21 May 2013 6.04 PM IST :
To top it off as of now -
- Still estimated shipping time on webpage is showing 20th May, but it has been updated that tracking number will be available in 12 hours, so I actually dont know what is the correct update.
- Snapdeal_help on twitter promised a a shipping by today but to no avail . They actually update my Mother and not me regarding that, but alas, its still showing pending.
- According to CCE Akash, package is ready for courier and will be shipped by tomorrow first half. One more date..Lets see how it goes.
- Snapdeal FB page removed the negative comments, however you can see them in the picture which is given above.
Update 22 May 2013 6 PM IST :
AS of now, Snapdeal has *FINALLY* shipped my order (YAY!!) . But again, it has been delayed by Courier Service. As of now, I was in talks with Assistant Mgr at Courier service who was quite helpful and said the product will be delivered by tomorrow. All I hope it is a functional one as this long delay has shaken my already non existent faith in Snapdeal.
Update 23 May 2013 6 PM IST :
Finally, after numerous delays, Order was delivered. The bottomline ? Well, the issue was already escalated at Snapdeal end , the pity was that when I checked at support.snapdeal.com , my ticket was not updated in 3-4 days, and one was closed with remark that customer (thats me) was not reachable. Excellent, it was only when I started escalating the matter on online and social platforms, they came into action and hasted the matter. Still its 8 days, which is well beyond the norms of a normal e-comm site.
I am glad it all ended well. Mom got the camera and I got to see the inner workings of an e-comm site.
by Rishabh Dangwal · 2
- Eliminating Symbolic Information
- Obfuscating the Program
- Embedding Antidebugger Code
- Encoding: With encoding, we must add the decoding instructions that decode the whole program before it’s being run. This can be done by appending the decoding instruction at the end of the program and changing the entry point to point to the decoding instructions. When the program is run, the decoding instructions are executed first, which decodes the whole program into its original form. After that, we must jump to the start of the program and actually run the original instructions as if the encoding didn’t even happen.
- Packing: When packing the executable, we’re basically reducing the size of the executable as well as encrypting it. When such a program is run, it must first be decoded in memory and then run.
- By obfuscating the program with nonstandard encoders/packers, we can greatly complicate the task of reverse engineering the executable, but at the end, a persistent reverse engineer will nevertheless be able to bypass that and get the non-obfuscated version of the executable, which can easily be reversed.
When stepping through the code with a debugger, the Trap Flag (TF) in the EFLAGS register is used. When the TF is enabled, an interrupt will be generated after every executed instruction, so we get the feeling of stepping though the program instruction by instruction.
// isdebuggerpresent.cpp : Defines the entry point for the console application.
int _tmain(int argc, _TCHAR* argv)
num = 0;
num = 1;
printf("Number: %d\n", num);
/* wait */
The program prints “Number: 0″ if the debugger is present and “Number: 1″ if the debugger is not. If we run the application under Visual Studio, the program will display the number 0 because it’s being run under a debugger. This can be seen on the picture below:
by Rishabh Dangwal · 1
|Yes folks..You will be running this..or a cousin of it.|
NOTE: I love linux but I hate Ubuntu, for my own personal reasons. I am a fedora guy & I love debian, but I hate Ubuntu.
Why I didnt covered this guide for Fedora as Fedora guys will figure out how to do it anyways :P , its Ubuntu ones who were facing maximum issues (just google it) and hence I wanted to cover a guide for it. Jokes aside, I intend to cover the subjected issue as I faced multiple issue myself.
Never-mind, my machine as of now is an amd64 E350 based HP dm1 3210 Laptop with 4 GB ram. Its a pretty under powered PC for running GNS3 (as compared to dedicated rigs I have seen, however I can run IOU & NX-OS Titanium over it and it balances every known equation for me) but it does the job with some tweaking and the result is very satisfactory.
Coming to the point, you will be needing -
- A laptop/desktop
- Any Ubuntu flavor installed (I use backbox, its better than backtrack)
- ASA 8.4.x files (initrd and kernel files, if you are reading this article, I know you have them)
Well this is simple, just type the commands and it will install safely. Make sure you dont have GNS3 installed previously else you might face some issues. Please note I am using compiling GNS3 for my 64 bit OS, however it should work for 32 but laptops too, make sure you choose correct version of dynamips from GNS3 website.
rishabh@xion$cd /optCheck if its installed by opening a terminal window and running GNS3. If it went well, proceed to next step.
rishabh@xion$sudo mkdir GNS3
rishabh@xi0n:/opt$ wget http://sourceforge.net/projects/gns-3/files/GNS3/0.8.3.1/GNS3-0.8.3.1-src.tar.gz
rishabh@xi0n:/opt$ unzip GNS3-0.8.3.1-src.zip
rishabh@xi0n:/opt$ sudo mv -f /GNS3-0.8.3.1-src/* /opt/GNS3
rishabh@xi0n:/opt$ sudo chmod 777 GNS3
rishabh@xi0n:/opt$ cd GNS3
rishabh@xi0n:/opt/GNS3$ sudo mkdir Dynamips Images Project Cache tmp
rishabh@xi0n:/opt/GNS3$ sudo chmod 777 Dynamips/ Images/ Project/ Cache/ tmp/
rishabh@xi0n:/opt/GNS3/Dynamips$ cd Dynamips/
rishabh@xi0n:/opt/GNS3/Dynamips$ export PATH=$PATH:/opt/GNS3/GNS3-0.8.3.1-src/
Step 2 - Compiling and Patching QEMU
This is the second most crucial step, do as instructed, by the time you are finished, you will be presented with a stable installation of patched Qemu. Make sure NO previous installation of Qemu in installed on your machine.
rishabh@xion:/opt/GNS3$ wget http://download.savannah.gnu.org/releases/qemu/qemu-0.11.0.tar.gzOnce its installed, check by running
rishabh@xion:/opt/GNS3$tar xvzf qemu-0.11.0.tar.gz
rishabh@xion:/opt/GNS3/qemu/qemu-0.11.0$patch -p1 -i qemu-0.11.0-olive.patch
rishabh@xion:/opt/GNS3/qemu/qemu-0.11.0$sudo make install
rishabh@xi0n:/opt/GNS3/qemu/qemu-0.11.0$ which qemuIt should display Qemu path, if not, you screwed up some where. Do it again.
Step 3 - Preliminary Configuration
In general settings of GNS3, you will find Qemuwrapper is already configured, double check Qemu & Qemu-img path here, it should be the same as mentioned in "which" command output or better if you have placed the same it in GNS3 folder
Also, Set ASA options as
Qemu Options:Browse to the initrd & kernel images of ASA and set memory to 1024, once done, save it.
-vnc none -vga none -m 1024 -icount auto -hdachs 980,16,32
Kernel cmd line:
-append ide_generic.probe_mask=0x01 ide_core.chs=0.0:980,16,32 auto nousb console=ttyS0,9600 bigphysarea=65536
make sure your configuration looks like this
When done, its execution time follks :)
Step 4 - Running it.
Well..it will look like this.
You can also check the ps output of Qemu (quick and dirty output here..nothing flashy)
rishabh@xi0n:/opt/GNS3$ ps ax | grep 'qemu'Once you are up and running, its time to grab a can of redbull (or beer if you prefer) and get a pat on your back, good work soldier :)
7094 pts/0 Sl+ 0:00 /usr/bin/python /opt/GNS3/GNS3-0.8.3.1-src/qemuwrapper/qemuwrapper.py --listen 127.0.0.1 --port 10525 --no-path-check
7101 pts/0 SN+ 0:00 /bin/sh -c /usr/local/bin/qemu -name ASA1 -m 1024 -hda "/tmp/ASA1/FLASH" -kernel "/home/rishabh/Documents/asa842-vmlinuz" -initrd "/home/rishabh/Documents/asa842-initrd" -append "-append ide_generic.probe_mask=0x01 ide_core.chs=0.0:980,16,32 auto nousb console=ttyS0,9600 bigphysarea=65536" -net nic,vlan=0,macaddr=00:00:ab:40:a4:00,model=e1000 -net nic,vlan=1,macaddr=00:00:ab:8d:12:01,model=e1000 -net nic,vlan=2,macaddr=00:00:ab:f0:c0:02,model=e1000 -serial telnet:127.0.0.1:3001,server,nowait -vnc none -vga none -m 1024 -icount auto -hdachs 980,16,32
7102 pts/0 R+ 0:19 /usr/local/bin/qemu -name ASA1 -m 1024 -hda /tmp/ASA1/FLASH -kernel /home/rishabh/Documents/asa842-vmlinuz -initrd /home/rishabh/Documents/asa842-initrd -append -append ide_generic.probe_mask=0x01 ide_core.chs=0.0:980,16,32 auto nousb console=ttyS0,9600 bigphysarea=65536 -net nic,vlan=0,macaddr=00:00:ab:40:a4:00,model=e1000 -net nic,vlan=1,macaddr=00:00:ab:8d:12:01,model=e1000 -net nic,vlan=2,macaddr=00:00:ab:f0:c0:02,model=e1000 -serial telnet:127.0.0.1:3001,server,nowait -vnc none -vga none -m 1024 -icount auto -hdachs 980,16,32
7175 pts/1 S+ 0:00 grep --color=auto qemu
Miscellaneous Errors , which you *just might* encounter and how to deal with them.
If you followed my steps, I dont think you will encounter any errors, but for the sake of completeness, I am including the most basic errors which you might get.
"qemuwrapper path doesn't exist"
This one is a classic one. With proper GNS3 0.8.3x installation, you will *not* encounter it. If you are running classic 0.7.x build, God save you. Even if you have 0.8.3.x & still get this error , find Qemuwrapper (it will be there in one of GNS3 source folders) and select it, save it. Error gone. Make sure permissions are correct.
"203-Bad number of parameters (5 with min/max=6/6)"
Upgrade your GNS from 0.7x.x to 0.8.3, if you are following this guide, you should not get this error.
"You are running an old and unpatched version of qemu"
Now here things get interesting. In one case I installed Qemu before installing GNS3 and I got this error quite frequently. I uninstalled Qemu, cleared my /tmp & I then first installed GNS3 and then installed Qemu after configuring GNS3 fully (except the Qemu part that is) . Did a sudo make install for Qemu and restarted my laptop. Please note I am using Qemu 0.11
Ran GNS3 and tada..
This error will be rectified.
"You must use 'manual mode' to connect a link with a xyz module"
Simple as hell, use manual mode..duh..
"QEMU boots but no ASA boot output on console"
Use correct QEMU binary, no Qemu_i386 / Qemu_x86_64. Use only correctly patched Qemu 0.11 binary in GNS3 like previously specified.
In all cases, all errors are either will be some permutation or combination of the mentioned ones. Well , it summarizes my post on running ASA, hope it will help you.
As usual, I used -
- The security awareness of people and organizations
- The devices they are using
- The security mechanisms they are using.
- Wifi range analysis of individual device.
- Hotspot details / BSSID (See if you are on the list) =))
- Google Maps KML Data (See it in Google Maps)
by Rishabh Dangwal · 2